1. (2015·岳阳模拟) ________ was really a great wonder that he could survive in such bad conditions.
A. This B. It C. That D. What
【解析】选B。句意: 他可以在这样恶劣的条件下生存真是个奇迹。it作形式主语, 后面的that从句作真正的主语。
The Premier said ________ was an important task to find jobs for all the university graduates.
A. this B. it C. that D. what
【解析】选B。句意: 总理说为所有的高校毕业生找到工作是一项重要任务。said后的宾语从句中it作形式主语, 不定式短语作真正的主语。
2. (2015·长沙模拟)I really didn’t understand ________ made the captain desert the ship and escape alone without taking care of the passengers on board.
A. what was it B. what it was that
C. it was what that D. what was it that
【解析】选B。句意: 我真的不明白是什么使船长丢弃船只不顾乘客而独自逃跑。强调句型的特殊疑问句在从句中要用陈述语序, 故选B。
(2015·雅安模拟)It was in Beihai Park, ________ they had their first date, ________ the old couple told us their romantic love story.
A. where; that B. that; that
C. where; when D. that; when
【解析】选A。句意: 是在他们第一次约会的北海公园, 那对老夫妇给我们讲述了他们浪漫的爱情故事。第一个空是where引导的定语从句修饰Beihai Park, 第二个空是强调句型, 应用that。故选A。
3. ________ I made rice, it came out like white paste.
A. For the first time B. By the first time
C. At the first time D. The first time
【解析】选D。句意: 我第一次做米饭时, 它结果像白色的糨糊。the first time用作连词, 引导时间状语从句。For the first time作时间状语, 不引导从句。
________ I saw Linda, she was playing the piano attentively.
A. At the first time B. For the first time
C. By the first time D. The first time
【解析】选D。句意: 我第一次看到琳达的时候, 她正在专心地弹钢琴。the first time+从句, 表示“第一次做某事时”。
for the first time, It be the first time that. . . 和the first time. . . 的区别
(1)for the first time表示“第一次”, 作时间状语。
(2)It be the first time that. . . 表示“第一次做某事”。当主句谓语为is时, 从句用现在完成时态; 当主句谓语为was时, 从句用过去完成时态。
(3)the first time. . . 表示“第一次……时”。the first time引导时间状语从句, 从句多用一般过去时态。
4. Every day a number of tourists take pictures in front of the tower, which ________ as early as 800 years ago.
A. dates back to B. is dated back to
C. is dating back to D. was dated back to
【解析】选A。句意: 每天都有一些游客在这座可追溯到800年前的塔前拍照。短语date back to相当于date from, 意为“追溯到, 始于”, 多用于一般现在时, 且一般不用于被动语态。
5. The choice you make upon graduation from college is of vital importance, for an appropriate ________ makes it possible for you to show your talent.
A. regulation B. occupation
C. recommendation D. participation
【解析】选B。句意: 大学毕业后你所做的选择至关重要, 因为一个适当的职业会有可能使你展现你的才能。regulation规章, 规则; occupation职业; recommendation推荐, 建议; participation参与。故选B。
6. We asked eight leading writers what items they would donate to the museum ________ their own lost loves.
A. in favour of B. in response to
C. in return for D. in honour of
【解析】选D。考查介词短语辨析。句意: 为此我们采访了八位前沿作家, 为了纪念他们逝去的爱情, 他们将会捐献什么物品给博物馆。in favour of支持, 赞成; in response to响应, 对……有反应; in return for作为……的报答; in honour of为了纪念。
Even if she is ________ the proposal now, we can’t rely on her support; she is the kind of person who blows hot and cold.
A. in honour of B. in face of
C. in need of D. in favour of
【解析】选D。句意: 即使她现在赞成这个建议, 我们也不能依靠她的支持, 她是个反复无常的人。in favour of赞成; in honour of向……表示敬意; in face of面对; in need of需要。
7. (2015·怀化模拟) ________ all of you are top students, only one will be chosen for the coming competition.
A. While B. Since C. If D. As
【解析】选A。句意: 尽管你们都是很优秀的学生, 但是将只有一个学生被选出来参加竞赛。while“虽然”, 引导让步状语从句, 符合句意; since既然, 因为; if是否; as由于, 随着。
8. I’ve personally never ________ the view that the rich are superior to the poor-it’s unfair.
A. subscribed to B. objected to
C. attended to D. appealed to【解析】选A。句意: 我个人从来都不同意富人优于穷人的观点, 那是不公平的。subscribe to同意, 符合句意; object to反对; attend to专心于, 照顾; appeal to吸引, 呼吁。
9. He became an official in the government as his parents had hoped, but he didn’t like it and had no ________ in this field.
A. ambition B. intention
C. identification D. explanation
【解析】选A。句意: 正如父母所愿, 他成为了一名政府官员, 但是他不喜欢这个职位, 在此领域没有什么抱负。ambition抱负, 野心; intention意图; identification辨认, 识别; explanation解释。
10. (2015·岳阳模拟) ________ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States.
A. Founded B. Being founded
C. It was founded D. Founding【解析】选A。考查非谓语动词。句意: 建于1636年的哈佛大学是美国最著名的大学之一。本句主语是Harvard, 与found之间是被动关系, 故用过去分词形式。
11. Children’s words and actions are often fairly ________ , and they do not seem to follow a definite plan or pattern.
A. random B. aggressive
C. deliberate D. temporary
【解析】选A。句意: 孩子们的言行往往相当随意, 他们似乎并不遵循一定的计划或模式。random随意的, 随机的; aggressive侵略的, 侵犯的; deliberate故意的; temporary临时的。
12. The model has ________ because it improved on the idea of local online advertising.
A. caught on B. kept on
C. taken on D. held on
【解析】选A。考查动词短语辨析。句意: 该模式一直很受欢迎, 因为它将地方在线广告的理念进一步深化了。catch on流行, 受欢迎; keep on继续进行; take on承担, 呈现; hold on握住不放, 坚持住。
13. (2015·长沙模拟)In his victory speech ________ before a huge crowd of his supporters, Obama declared that “Change has come to America”.
A. delivered B. to be delivered
C. having delivered D. delivering
【解析】选A。句意: 奥巴马在他的一大群支持者面前发表的获胜演说中宣称“美国的变革时代已经到来”。speech和deliver之间是被动关系, 故选A。
14. Everything seemed to be going ________ for the first two days after I moved to New York.
A. vividly B. generally
C. frequently D. smoothly
【解析】选D。考查副词辨析。句意: 在我搬到纽约后的开始两天一切看起来都很顺利。A项表示“生动地”; B项表示“普遍地, 大体地”; C项表示“频繁地”; D项表示“平滑地, 顺利地”。
15. ________ by the mudslide, the city was cut off from the outside.
A. Having struck B. To be struck
C. Struck D. Being struck
【解析】选C。考查非谓语动词。句意: 由于受泥石流的袭击, 这座城市与外界失去了联系。此处struck by the mudslide相当于状语从句because it was struck by the mudslide。由此可知句子主语the city与strike之间是逻辑上的被动关系, 所以要用过去分词。to be struck作状语表示目的; being struck表示“正在被袭击”。
Just as I didn’t know what to do next, it suddenly ________ me how we could improve the situation.
A. drew B. struck C. rushed D. pushed
【解析】选B。It strikes/struck sb. (that). . . 某人突然想起……。这里指突然想起我们如何改善这种状况。
Eating different colored foods can keep you healthy, as well as change your mood and behavior. Here is a list of colors, which can change your life.
Blue is considered to be peaceful and calming and it has the same effect on our health. The blue/purple color in food is due primarily to their anthocyanins which are antioxidants(抗氧化剂)that are particularly heart healthy and may help support healthy blood pressure. Out of all the blue and purple foods available, blueberries are considered to have the highest antioxidant level. An analysis of the latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study found that people who eat purple and blue fruits and vegetables are at a reduced risk for high blood pressure and are less likely to be overweight.
A food and health expert says that blue and purple foods can prevent blood mass formation, and they also lower the risk of cancer.
Foods that contain blue and purple colors are: reddish eggplant(especially the skin), blueberries, blackberries, purple grapes, etc. .
We all know that we should eat green as green symbolizes nature. The green foods are rich in isothiocyanates, which help resist cancer. Dr. Ashok Agarwal, a food and nutrition specialist, explains, “They are excellent sources of folic acid, Vitamin K, as well as carotene(胡萝卜素). Diets high in those above are associated with lowered blood pressure. ”
Foods that contain the green color are: broccoli, cabbage, cucumbers, etc. .
Lycopene(番茄红素)in reddish fruits and vegetables is a powerful antioxidant that has been associated with a reduced risk of some cancers, and also provides protection against heart attacks.
Dr. Smiths says, “Cooked tomato sauces are associated with greater health benefits as compared with the uncooked version as the heating process allows lycopene to be more easily absorbed by the body. Obtaining the most benefit from foods depends on proper selection, storage and cooking of the produce. ”
Foods that contain the red color are: Tomatoes and tomato products, watermelon, guava, red onions, red chili, red apples, red grapes, cherries, etc. .
The orange foods are also rich in carotene, which is a particularly good antioxidant. These foods are commonly considered eyesight foods because they contain Vitamin A. Orange fruits and vegetables also play a part in preventing cancer, particularly of the lungs and stomach. Foods that contain the orange color are: Carrots, mangoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, etc. .
【文章大意】吃不同颜色的食物对我们的健康有好处, 同时它们还会改变我们的情绪和行为。文章介绍了一些能改变我们生活的不同颜色的食物。例如: 蓝色的食物会帮助我们降血压, 绿色的食物有利于预防癌症等。
1. The passage tries to tell us that ________ .
A. colors mean a lot to people and their health
B. foods of different colors will have different benefits
C. eating foods with a color must prevent diseases
D. what people should eat in their daily lives
【解析】选B。主旨大意题。根据文章第一段可知文章主要介绍不同颜色的食物能对我们的生活产生不同的作用, 由Here is a list of colors, which can change your life可知文章主要讲不同颜色的食物有不同的作用。故选B。
2. All the colors mentioned in the passage have the function of ________ .
A. lowering blood pressure
B. improving eyesight
C. preventing cancer
D. reducing the risk of heart disease
【解析】选C。细节理解题。由第三段A food and health expert says that blue and purple foods can prevent blood mass formation, and they also lower the risk of cancer; 第五段The green foods are rich in isothiocyanates, which help resist cancer; 第八段Lycopene in reddish fruits and vegetables is a powerful antioxidant that has been associated with a reduced risk of some cancers和最后一段Orange fruits and vegetables also play a part in preventing cancer, particularly of the lungs and stomach. 可知, 文中提到的几种颜色的食物都有预防癌症的效果。故选C。
3. Which color can help keep us thin according to the passage?
A. Purple. B. Green. C. Red. D. Orange.
【解析】选A。细节理解题。由第二段An analysis of the latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study found that people who eat purple and blue fruits and vegetables are at a reduced risk for high blood pressure and are less likely to be overweight. 可知选A。
4. The green and orange foods are both rich in ________ .
A. Vitamin A B. folic acid
C. carotene D. Vitamin K
【解析】选C。细节理解题。从小标题Green下面的段落中发现They are excellent sources of folic acid, Vitamin K, as well as carotene, 从小标题Orange下面的段落中发现The orange foods are also rich in carotene。可知这两种颜色的食物都富含胡萝卜素carotene。
5. It can be inferred from the passage that ________ .
A. all grapes help lower the risk of high blood pressure and cancer
B. lung cancer can be prevented by eating red-colored foods
C. green-colored foods contain a lot of Vitamin A which is good for eye health
D. tomatoes should be eaten cooked so that we can benefit the most
【解析】选D。推理判断题。由倒数第四段中的Cooked tomato sauces are associated with greater health benefits as compared with the uncooked version可知选D。
You say you want to be alone? Think again. Researchers have found that older people with fewer human contacts are more likely to die-even if they’re happy in their isolation(孤立状态)-than people with richer social lives. The study adds to the debate over whether loneliness, social isolation, or some combination of the two leads to higher death rate.
Social isolation is an objective condition in which people have little communication with others. Loneliness, on the other hand, is an emotional state felt by people who are dissatisfied with their social connections.
To find out the effects of being alone versus(比对)just feeling lonely, Steptoe of University College London and his colleagues examined data from 6, 500 Britons aged 50 and up who had filled out questionnaires evaluating their levels of loneliness.
The most socially isolated subjects had a 26% greater risk of dying, even when sex, age, and other factors linked to survival were taken into account, the researchers report online today. They then made changes about their model to determine whether the connection to death was due to the fact that isolated people are often lonely. It wasn’t.
The researchers then explored the connection between loneliness itself and death. Intense loneliness also appeared to raise the risk of death by 26% -until the team took into account a host of other factors linked to survival, including wealth, education, and the presence of health problems. Once their impact had been explained, the scientists discovered that loneliness on its own didn’t make people more vulnerable(脆弱的)to death.
The researchers suspect that older people who have few social ties may not be getting the care they need. No one is urging them to eat right or take their medicine, and in a crisis no one is there to help.
Other researchers praise the new work as rigorous(严密的)and well-controlled. But they say it’s far from clear that social isolation, not loneliness, is always the real cause of increased death rate.
Other studies, including an analysis of older Americans led by John Cacioppo, a psychology professor at the University of Chicago in Illinois, have shown a link between loneliness and a higher death rate. Cacioppo suspects that the disagreement between his study and the new research could lie with cultural differences between Steptoe’s British subjects and Americans, and that Britons and Americans may define friends differently, too.
Health psychologist Bert Uchino of the University of Utah praises the new study, but he says that researchers are still far from understanding how those two factors affect one another and other health-related behaviors.
Dangers of Isolation Passage outline Supporting details The finding of a new study and its impact ·Social isolation may(1) ________ older people’s risk of death.
·More(2) ________ is caused over older people’s higher death rate. The differences between social isolation and loneliness ·Social isolation means that people hardly(3) ________ with others or stay alone.
·Loneliness means that people are not satisfied with their social connections or(4) ________ lonely. The conclusion of the research ·The isolation actually led to a greater risk of dying, but(5) ________ itself couldn’t cause the higher death rate.
·The cause of higher death rate might lie in their lack of good care and timely(6) ________ . The(7) ________ of others’ ·It was still(8) ________ that social isolation rather than loneliness is the real cause of higher death rate.
·Cultural differences between Britons and Americans might explain the(9) ________ result of the study by John Cacioppo.
·There is still a long way to go before(10) ________ how those two factors affect one another.
1. 【解析】increase/raise。原文词汇。根据第五段中appeared to raise the risk of death可知。
2. 【解析】debate。原文词汇。根据第一段中“adds to the debate over. . . ”可知。
3. 【解析】communicate。转换词汇。根据第二段have little communication with others可知。此空填谓语动词形式, 故用动词communicate。
4. 【解析】feel。转换词汇。根据第二段中“an emotional state felt”和第三段中的“just feeling lonely”可知此空填feel。
5. 【解析】loneliness。原文词汇。根据第五段最后的“loneliness on its own didn’t make. . . ”可知。
6. 【解析】help。转换词汇。根据第六段最后的“is there to help”可知。此空的help是名词。
8. 【解析】unclear/vague/ambiguous。转换词汇。根据倒数第三段中的“far from clear”可知。
9. 【解析】different。转换词汇。根据倒数第二段最后一句的“define friends differently”可知。
10. 【解析】understanding。原文词汇。根据原文最后一段中的far from understanding可知。
1. An analysis of the latest data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study found that people who eat purple and blue fruits and vegetables are at a reduced risk for high blood pressure and are less likely to be overweight.
句式分析: 句中含有两个从句, 第一个是that引导的宾语从句; 第二个是who引导的定语从句修饰people。
自主翻译: 2. A food and health expert says that blue and purple foods can prevent blood mass formation, and they also lower the risk of cancer.
自主翻译: 答案：1. 来自全国健康和营养状况调查的最新分析数据发现, 吃紫色和蓝色水果和蔬菜的人患高血压的风险低并且不太可能超重。
2. 一个食品卫生专家说, 蓝色和紫色的食物可以防止血癖的形成, 并且也能够降低患癌症的风险。